## Trying to find math inside everything else

### Satisfying Work

Earlier this year, Justin Aion wrote a post about how he tried to make his class boring on purpose by just giving silent independent work, to make them appreciate what he was normally doing, and how it backfired gloriously. At first, he wondered what he can do to break them of this preference for what they are used to and what is easy. About two months after that, we wrote about a similar situation, and wondered the following:

I’m beginning to wonder if my attempts to give them more engaging lessons and activities have burned them out.  I’m not giving up on the more involved activities.  I want them to be better at problem solving, but I think by trying to do it every day, I haven’t done a good job of meeting them where they are and helping to be where I want them to be.

As I read more of Reality Is Broken, though, I encountered an alternative explanation. In the book, Jane McGonigal wonders why so many people play games like World of Warcraft and other such MMORPGs where the gameplay is not, shall we say, the most thrilling. Many people find enjoyment in what other players call “grinding,” playing with the sole purpose of leveling up. In general, it’s a lot of work to level up in the game to get to what is considered the “good” part of the game, raiding in the end game.

But it’s work that people enjoy doing, and that’s because it is satisfying work. Dr. McGonigal defines satisfying work as work that has a clear goal and actionable next steps. She then goes on to say –

What if we have a clear goal, but we aren’t sure how to go about achieving it? Then it’s not work – it’s a problem. Now, there’s nothing wrong with having interesting problems to solve; it can be quite engaging. But it doesn’t necessarily lead to satisfaction. In the absence of actionable steps, our motivation to solve a problem might not be enough to make real progress. Well-designed work, on the other hand, leaves no doubt that progress will be made. There is a guarantee of productivity built in, and that’s what makes it so appealing.

Well, now, doesn’t that sound familiar? It kinda hit me in the gut when I read it. As math teachers, we are often preaching that we are trying to teach “problem solving” skills – but the thing is, people don’t like solving problems! It made make think of those poor grad students who are working towards their PhD – grad school burnout is a big issue, and one of the major contributing factors is that grad students are trying to solve problems, and so often feel like they are getting nowhere. Their work is inherently unsatisfying, which makes those that can finish a rare breed.

Our students, of course, are not all made of such stuff. But I’m not at all suggesting we drop our attempts at teaching problem solving and only give straight-forward work. Rather, I feel like we need to find a balance – for the past year, as I embraced a Problem-Based Curriculum, I may have pushed too far in the problem-solving direction, and found my students yearning for straight-forward worksheets, just as Justin did. But they also enjoyed tackling these problems, especially when they solved them, and I do think they had more independence and problem-solving skills by the end of the year.

So what should I do? Dr. McGonigal ends the chapter by noting that even high-powered CEOs take short breaks to play computer games like Solitaire or Bejeweled during the work day – it makes them less stressed and feel more productive, even if it doesn’t directly relate to what they are doing. (This reminds me of the recess debate in elementary school.) So even as I go forward with my problem-solving curriculum, I need to weave in more concrete work, and everyone will be more satisfied by it.

### Recursive Combinations with Replacement

So I was in my classroom last night with my boyfriend, waiting for his phone to charge before we went to dinner. Since we had some time, we played some of the math games I have in my room. (He’s a math PhD student, so he was all for it.) We played Set, of course, and then played a bit of 24. We idly wondered if it were possible to get 24 with any combination of 4 digits. So I looked at the box, and saw it came with 192 possible configurations. Well, if we determined how many possibilities there were (maybe there were 192), that might give us an idea of the feasibility.

So we tried to calculate how many configurations there were. Shouldn’t be too hard, right? Well, it kinda is, especially when you’re not already familiar with combinations with replacement. So we started using what we did know of combinations, but were stuck because we could use the same number multiple times, which made it trickier. Otherwise it would just be 9 C 4.

So, unsure how to solve, we tried to make a simpler case. What if we only had 2 digits to choose from, not 9? There’s there’s 5 possibilities. (1111, 1112, 1122, 1222, 2222.) And with 3 digits, there’s 15 (1111, 1112, 1113, 1122, 1123, 1133, 1222, 1223, 1233, 1333, 2223, 2233, 2333, 3333). We got a lot of fruitful thinking out of this, finding patterns, but didn’t really get closer to the answer. (Four digits had 35, btw. But we didn’t want to list all the ones for 5 digits and beyond.)

At this point it was time to go to dinner, so we put the whiteboard aside. But that couldn’t stop us thinking and talking about it, which we did as we walked to the restaurant and waited for out table, when we finally had a breakthrough.

Instead of trying to figure out the pattern with fewer digits but the same number of slots, let’s try to iterate up with the same number of digits, but using increasing number of slots. Let me explain, using 4 possible digits.

If we only have 1 number slot on the card, there are only 4 possibilities. (1, 2, 3, 4.) When we increase to 2 slots, we could start by putting a 1 in front of each of those possibilities. (11, 12, 13, 14). But, because order doesn’t matter, we can’t also put 2 in front of everything, because 21 is the same as 22. So we don’t use the one, and get 22, 23, 24. Same logic for 3 gives us 33, 34, and then finally 44.

This gives us a total of 10 possibilities. (4 + 3 + 2 + 1.) Now let’s think about 3 slots. In the same way, we can add a 1 in front of everything we’ve done so far. So for 3 digit possibilities there are 10 that start 1. Since we have to eliminate the four that two-digit configurations that have 1, there are 6 remaining, so that’s how many will start with 2. (3 + 2 + 1). Then three will start with 3. (2 + 1) And 1 will start with 4.

The process here is to add up all of what we had before, chopping off the start, to get the total number of new possibilities. So now, with 3 slots, we have 20 possibilities. (10 + 6 + 3 + 1.) To get for 4 slots, we use the same process: 20 start with 1, 10 start with 2 (6 + 3 + 1), 4 start with 3 (3 + 1), and 1 starts with 4, for a total of 35. Which is what we found before.

(If there were 5 slots, it would be 35 + 15 + 5 + 1, or 56.)

I don’t know of this recursive method of solving for combinations with replacements has been done before. I’m sure it is, but I haven’t found it in a very short google search. If someone knows of it, please let me know. But I wanted to share what I did. You can tell I love math, and so does my boyfriend, because we got completely distracted from a board game by solving a problem. He told me I’d make a good mathematician, because of how I tackled the problem. That may be true.